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When the seller decides that the time is right or when the lender recalls the securitiesthe seller buys the same number of equivalent securities and returns them to the lender. The act of buying back the securities that were sold short is called "covering the short" or "covering the position".

A short position can be covered at any time before the securities are due to be returned. Once the position is covered, the short seller is not affected by subsequent rises or falls in the price of the securities, for it already holds the securities that it will return to the lender. The process relies on the fact that the securities or the other assets being sold short are fungible.

An investor therefore "borrows" securities in the same sense as one borrows cash, where the borrowed cash can be freely disposed of and different bank notes or coins can be returned to the lender.

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This can be contrasted with the sense in which one borrows a bicycle, where the same bicycle must be returned, not merely one that is the same model. Because the price of a share is theoretically unlimited, the potential losses of a short-seller are also theoretically unlimited.

Short seller returns the shares to the lender, who must accept the return of the same number of shares as was lent despite the fact that the market value of the shares has decreased.

Short seller returns the shares to the lender, who accepts the return of the same number of shares as was lent. Synthetic shorting with derivatives "Shorting" or "going short" and sometimes also "short selling" also refer more broadly to any transaction used by an investor to profit from the decline in price of a borrowed asset or financial instrument.

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Derivatives contracts that can be used in this way include futuresoptionsand swaps. The Dutch East India Company and its shareholders played a crucial role in the transformation of modern-day global financial markets, causing a number of 'innovations' to be introduced, such as futures contractsstock optionsshort sellingand bear raid. The first documented effort of the short selling of securities in financial history dates towhen Isaac Le Mairea sizeable shareholder of the VOC, initiated the first recorded bear raidselling shares of the Company short to buy them back at a profit.

This, combined with the seemingly complex and hard-to-follow tactics of the practice, has made short selling a historical target for criticism.

The London banking house of Neal, James, Fordyce and Down collapsed in Juneprecipitating a major crisis that included the collapse of almost every private bank in Scotland, and a liquidity crisis in the two major banking centres of the world, London and Amsterdam.

The bank had been speculating by shorting East India Company stock on a massive poziția de opțiuni scurte, and apparently using customer deposits to cover losses.

Agregare vs. Hedging

It was perceived[ citation needed ] as having a magnifying effect in the violent downturn in the Dutch tulip market in the eighteenth century. The term short was in use from at least the mid-nineteenth century. It is commonly understood that the word "short" i. Edgar Hoover said he would investigate short sellers for their role in prolonging the Depression. During the dot-com bubbleshorting a start-up company could backfire since it could be taken over at a price higher than the price at which speculators shorted.

In response, a number of countries introduced restrictive regulations on short-selling in and Naked short selling is the practice of short-selling a tradable asset without first borrowing the security or ensuring that the security can be borrowed — it was this practice that was commonly restricted.

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That ban expired several weeks later as regulators determined the ban was not stabilizing the price of stocks. Investors continue to argue this only contributes to market inefficiency. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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January See also: Securities lending A short seller typically borrows through a brokerwho is usually holding the securities for another investor who owns the securities; the broker himself retragerea fondurilor din opțiunile binare video purchases the securities to lend to the short seller.

In most market conditions there is a ready supply of securities to be borrowed, held by pension funds, mutual funds and other investors. Shorting stock in the U. To sell stocks short in the U. This is referred to as a locate. Brokers have a variety of means to borrow stocks to facilitate locates and make good on delivery of the shorted security. The vast majority of stocks borrowed by U.

Institutions often lend out their shares to earn extra money on their investments.

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These institutional loans are usually arranged by the custodian who holds the securities for the institution. The cash collateral is then invested by the lender, who often rebates part of the interest to the borrower.

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The interest that is kept by the lender is the compensation to the lender for the stock loan. Brokerage firms can also borrow stocks from the accounts of their own customers.

Short (finance)

Typical margin account agreements give brokerage firms the right to borrow customer shares without notifying the customer. In general, brokerage accounts are only allowed to lend shares from accounts for poziția de opțiuni scurte customers have debit balances, meaning they have borrowed from the account. SEC Rule 15c imposes such severe restrictions on the lending of shares from cash accounts or excess margin fully paid for shares from margin accounts that most brokerage firms do not bother except in rare circumstances.

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These restrictions include that the broker must have the express permission of the customer and provide collateral or a letter of credit. Most brokers allow retail customers to borrow shares to short a stock only if one of their own customers has purchased the stock on margin.

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Brokers go through the "locate" process outside their own firm to obtain borrowed shares from other brokers only for their large institutional customers. Stock exchanges such as the NYSE or the NASDAQ typically report the "short interest" of a stock, which gives the number of shares that have been legally sold short as a percent of the total float. Alternatively, these can also be expressed as the short interest ratiowhich is the number of shares legally sold short as a multiple of the average daily volume.

These can be useful tools to spot trends in stock price movements but for them to be reliable, investors must also ascertain the number of shares brought into existence by naked shorters. Speculators are cautioned to remember that for every share that has been shorted owned by a new ownera 'shadow owner' exists i. Securities lending Main article: Securities lending When a security is sold, the seller is contractually obliged to deliver it to the buyer.

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If a seller sells a security short without poziția de opțiuni scurte it first, the seller must borrow the security from a third party to fulfill its obligation. Otherwise, the seller fails to deliver, the transaction does not settleand the seller may be subject to a claim from its counterparty.

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Certain large holders of securities, such as a custodian or investment management firm, often lend out these securities to gain extra income, a process known as securities lending. The lender receives a fee for this service. Similarly, retail investors can sometimes make an extra fee when their broker wants to borrow their securities.

This is only possible when the investor has full title of the security, so it cannot be used as collateral for margin buying. Sources of short interest data Time delayed short interest data for legally shorted shares is available in a number poziția de opțiuni scurte countries, including the US, the UK, Hong Kong, and Spain.

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The number of stocks being shorted on a global basis has increased in recent years for various structural reasons e. The data is typically delayed; for example, the NASDAQ requires its broker-dealer member firms to report data on the 15th of each month, and then publishes a compilation eight days later. SunGard provides daily data on short interest by tracking the proxy variables based on borrowing and lending data it collects. For example, if there are ten million shares of XYZ Inc.

Short Interest relates the number of shares in a given equity that have been legally shorted divided by the total shares outstanding for the company, usually expressed as a percent.

If, however, shares are being created through naked short selling, "fails" data must be accessed to assess accurately the true level of short interest.

Borrow cost is the fee paid to a securities lender for borrowing the stock or other security. However, certain stocks become "hard to borrow" as stockholders willing to lend their stock become more difficult to locate.

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