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See also: Bull stock market speculator A bull market is a period of generally rising prices. The start of a bull market is marked by widespread pessimism. This point is when the "crowd" is the most "bearish".
Bear markets end when stocks recover, attaining new highs. Another long-term bear market occurred from about toencompassing the s energy crisis and the high unemployment of the early s.
One more bear market happened in India following the Indian Stock Market scam Another bear market was the Stock market downturn of Yet another bear market occurred between October and March as a result of the financial crisis of — The Chinese stock market crash was also a bear market. In earlyas a result of the COVID pandemicmultiple stock market crashes have led to bear markets across the world, many of which are still ongoing.
Market top[ edit ] A market top or market high is usually not a dramatic event. The market has simply reached the highest point that it will, for some time usually a few years.
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It is identified retrospectively, as market participants are not aware of it at linii de tendință majore time it happens. Thus prices subsequently fall, either slowly or more rapidly. William O'Neil reported that, since the s, a market top is characterized by three to five distribution days in a major stock market index occurring within a relatively short period of time.
Distribution is a decline in price with higher volume than the preceding session. The index closed at 4, The peak for the U. Market bottom[ edit ] A market bottom is a trend reversal, the end of a market downturn, and the beginning of an upward moving trend bull market.
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It is very difficult to identify a bottom referred to as "bottom picking" before it passes. The upturn following a decline may be short-lived and prices might resume their decline.
This would bring a loss for the investor who purchased stock s during a misperceived or "false" market bottom. Baron Rothschild is said to have advised that the best time to buy is when there is "blood in the streets", i. This day was called Black Monday chart . A bottom of This included an intermediate bottom of A bottom of 6, Secondary trends[ edit ] Secondary trends are short-term changes in price direction within a primary trend.
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They may last for a few weeks or a few months. The Japanese Nikkei has had several bear-market rallies between the s andwhile experiencing an overall long-term downward trend.
Causes of market trends[ edit ] The price of assets such as stocks is set by supply and demand.
By definition, the market balances buyers and sellers, so it is impossible to have "more buyers than sellers" or vice versa, although that is a common expression. In a surge in demand, the buyers will increase the price they are willing to pay, while the sellers will increase the price they wish to receive.
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In a surge in supply, the opposite happens. Supply and demand are varied when investors try to shift allocation of their investments between asset types.
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For example, at one time, investors may wish to move money from government bonds to "tech" stocks, but they will only succeed if somebody else is willing to buy government bonds from them; at another time, they may try linii de tendință majore move money from "tech" stocks to government bonds.
In each case, this will affect the price of both types of assets. Ideally, investors would wish to use market timing to buy low and sell high, but they may end up buying high and selling low. A time when most investors are selling stocks is known as distribution, while a time when most investors are buying stocks is known as accumulation.
According to standard theory, a decrease in price will result in less supply and more demand, while an increase in price will do the opposite. This works well for most assets but it often works in reverse for stocks due to the mistake many investors make of buying high in a state of euphoria and selling low in a state of fear or panic as a result of the herding linii de tendință majore.
In case an increase in price causes an increase in demand, or a decrease in price causes an increase in supply, this destroys the expected negative feedback loop and prices will be unstable. Market sentiment is a contrarian stock market indicator.
When an extremely high proportion of investors express a bearish negative sentiment, some analysts consider it to be a strong signal that a market bottom may be near. Typically, the number of bears surveyed would exceed the number of bulls. However, if the number of bulls is at an extreme high and the number of bears is at an extreme low, historically, a market top may have occurred or is close to occurring.
This contrarian measure is more reliable for its coincidental timing at market lows than tops.